A brief history of the native black peoples of South Africa
Historical evidence indicates that the San peoples (ǀXam, ǂKhomani, Barakwena) were the first to migrate to Southern Africa after divergence from earlier populations in East Africa, generally believed to be the Sandawe peoples of Tanzania who are linguistically and culturally related to the San. The San have inhabited South Africa for at least 40 000 years, proof of this habitation can be found in the wealth of rock art that can be found in numerous locations throughout South Africa.
The second native group to migrate to Southern Africa were the Khoena peoples (Nama, Kora, Hessequa) who reached present day South Africa in 100BC, they were followed by the Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Tsonga and Venda peoples in 300 AD.
Khoena, Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Tsonga and Venda established a range of relationships with the San people from conflict to <a href=” http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003309″>ritual interaction and intermarriage</a> prior to encroachment by European colonists in the early 17th century, which led to the dispossession of thr native population who lost their land, livestock and in some instances, languages and traditional way of life.
The San were especially hit the hardest because from the 1600s-1800s, Trekboer commandos (mobile paramilitary units) were ordered to hunt San tribes and by 1873, the San of the Cape were hunted into near extinction. The last permit to hunt San was issued in Namibia by the South African government in 1936.